The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust
Historic Environment Record
 

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CAT HOLE CAVE (OR CATHOLE)

Primary Reference Number (PRN) : 00231w
Trust : Glamorgan Gwent
Community : Ilston
NGR : SS53779002
Site Type (preferred type first) : Multiperiod Cave
Legal Protection : scheduled ancient monument

Summary :
Cave with a sequence of deposits indicating human activity dating from the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Bronze Age and Middle Ages.

Description :
Cat hole cave was first excavated in 1864 by Col E R Wood, who found flint implements probably belonging to the Cresswellian culture, associated with a cold Pleistocene fauna. He also found a socketed bronze axe, cord impression sherds, a stone muller and the remains of 2 individuals, but the excavation is ill-recorded. Excavation in 1958 by C B M McBurney showed that the original deposits contained the remains of a cold fauna and a flint industry attributable to a single phase of occupation. Further excavation in 1968 distinguished at least 2 Stone Age occupations, of which the later is Mesolithic. Uppermost deposits contained distinct Bronze Age and Medieval deposits. The Bronze Age layer yielded some scattered human remains and 2 sherds apparently from burial urns. There is insufficient evidence to determine the nature of the medieval occupation. Finds in Swansea Museum.
(RCAHMW 1976, 19 no.17)

In September 2010, an engraving was found, possibly a reindeer, at the back of Cathole Cave on the Gower Peninsula. It was engraved on a vertical panel inside a discrete niche, approximately 10.5m from the cave entrance, northeast of the main gallery.
The engraving measures at 15 x 11cm and was likely carved by a pointed flint awl-like tool. The engraving has a number of characteristics that resemble other carvings throughout Europe including an elongated torso filled with vertical and diagonal lines. Some of these internal diagonal lines extend below the torso to form three of the four legs. On the left side of the torso, a head or muzzle is incorporated, with a thin rectangular block with 3 lines forming a stylised antler set.
In April 2011, members of the NERC-Open University Uranium series Facility extracted samples from the surface of the engraving for chronometric surveying to find a date. A date of 12,572 + 600 years BP was obtained. In July 2011, another sample was taken from flowstone of the left of the muzzle giving an age of 14,505 + 560 years BP. The sample provides evidence of the dating of flowstone development (Nash, G. 2012).

Sources :
Nash, G. , 2012 , Brief Note of the Recent Discovery of Upper Paleolithic Rock Art at Cathole Cave on the Gower Peninsula. , Archaeology in Wales : 51 : 111-114
Forest Enterprise Welsh Heritage Assets Project Phase II
Wood Col, 1864: Cadw Ref No. 19/2542/GM349 (SWA).
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
07/PM Desc Text/Valdemar AE/1970/Trans Cav Res Gp/vol12,2 pp113-126
14/MM Record Card/OS/1982/SS 59 SW 6
13/PM Desc Text/Owen-John HS/1990/From Antiquarianism to Archaeology
12/MM Desc Text/Cadw/Burnham HB/1989/AM 107
11/MM Desc Text/Neo Studies & Lithic Studies Joint Conference/Green HS/1988/Cathole Cave
10/PM Desc Text/Oldham T/1982/Caves of Gower pp21-23 illustration
08/PM Mention/1981/Arch Camb/vol CXXX pp153-161
06/MM Photo/GGAT/Lewis W/1979-80
05/PM Excav Report/McDurney CBM/1959/PPS XXV p265-8
04/PM Desc Text/Garrod D/19 /Upper Pal/pp67-9
03/PH Plan/Hussey Vivian/1887/Arch Camb pp200-1
02/MM Record Card/OS/1957/SS 59 SW 6
01/PM Desc Text/RCAHMW/Glam Invent volI ptI p19
09/MM AP/GGAT/Parkhouse J/12.2.88/A62,14,17,18,20-22
01/PM Desc Text/RCAHMW/1976/Glam Invent volI ptI p19
15/CPAT forest enterprise project phase II 1998
16/Wood Col, 1864: Cadw Ref No. 19/2542/GM349 (SWA).
17/MM Desc Text/Cadw/Burnham HB/1989/AM 107

Events :
E000594 : CAT HOLE CAVE (OR CATHOLE), PARTIAL EXCAVATION, 1864 (year : 1864)
E004050 : Brief Note on the Recent Discovery of Upper Paleolithic Rock Art at Cathole Cave on the Gower Peninsula (year : 2011)

Related PRNs :


Images :



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