The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological
Historic Environment Record
following information has been provided under the terms and conditions
of access as detailed on GGAT’s website www.ggat.org.uk.
Copyright is reserved on all data supplied by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust.
All output resulting from the use of the data must acknowledge the source
from information held by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust copyright.
data below is intended to be used for information and research only and
is not for use as part of a commercial project. If you wish to use
information derived from material held by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust
for publication in printed or multimedia form or to compile resources for
commercial use, prior permission must be obtained in writing. For further
information or to arrange a visit to the Trust please send an
The following information is from the
on-line database Archwilio
Llanmelin Wood CampsPrimary Reference Number (PRN) : 01026g
Trust : Glamorgan Gwent
Community : Shirenewton
NGR : ST46109257
Site Type (preferred type first) : Iron Age Hillfort
Legal Protection : scheduled ancient monument
Early Iron Age multivallate hillfort, with Roman and medieval reoccupation.
Initial occupation: The main hillfort was multivallate. The enclosure was roughly elliptical, measuring c230 x 150m, with a secondary rectangular multivallate annexe (c40m x 21m) against the south-east long side and a single inturned entrance immediately south of junction between main part and annexe. The ditches were rock-cut and the banks mainly formed from upcast, although on the north-east side the innermost bank was built wholly of rubble, faced with roughly coursed masonry both internally (a vertical face) and externally (battered). SW bank rubble revetment. At least one inner earthwork of annexe secondary.
The earlier of the two phases identified in the defences was of early Iron Age date. The final one, cAD50, involved an extensive remodelling and strengthening of the entrance. A trackway, probably contemporary (but outside the Scheduled area), led from close to the south corner of the annexe westwards obliquely down the hill.
The 'Outpost' was also multivallate. It was apparently designed as a satellite to the main fort, and an integral part of its defences (Forde-Johnson 1962, 83).
Very little in the way of recognisable occupation deposits were found within the defences of either of the earthworks. Early Iron Age and Roman pottery was found, none of the latter later than c AD75. On this basis, Nash-Williams confidently asserted that Roman occupation cannot have extended beyond AD 75, but the extremely small percentage of the fort which was excavated means that, although the site was clearly occupied into the Roman period, it would be unwise to give any cut-off date for this occupation.
Reoccupation: Both the annexe to the main fort and the 'Outpost', contained medieval buildings associated with late 12th - early 13th century pottery. They took the form of one-roomed structures of rectangular plan with rounded corners, a type recorded in South Wales throughout the medieval period, and used for buildings on manorial sites as well as for peasants' cottages (Robinson 1982, 103-104). (Wiggins 2006)
In October 2002, Forest research, an agency of the Forestry Commission, undertook an auger survey of three sites as part of an MSc dissertation "A soil guide to longevity: woodland soil chemistry and implications for the buried archaeological resource". The three sites comprised Welshbury Hillfort and Lower Knole Farm in Gloucestershire, and Llanmellin Hillfort in Monmouthshire.
The chemical analysis of the results of the auger survey suggested that Llanmelin Hillfort had previously been farmed, possibly in the medieval period (Crow 2002).
Evans, E M , 2004 , Early Medieval Ecclesiastical sites in Southeast Wales: Rapid field survey of selected sites
Wiggins, H , 2006 , Prehistoric defended enclosures in Gwent ( © GGAT)
Evans E M & Locock M , 1994 , RAF Caerwent Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment ( © GGAT)
Nash-Williams, V E , 1933 , An Early Iron Age hillfort at Llanmelin, Monmouthshire, Archaeologia Cambrensis : 88 : 237-346
Crow, P , 2002 , Comparative study of soil chemistry under different land management regimes
01/Mm AP Gazeteer/2004 January/Sorrell John/Aerial Archaeological Photographs of Gwent/SMR
E000296 : LLANMELIN WOOD CAMPS, PARTIAL EXCAVATION, 1991 (year : 1991)
E001386 : Early medieval ecclesiastical sites in Southeast Wales desk based assessment (year : 2004)
E001437 : Field visit to Llanmelin (year : 2004)
E001550 : Prehistoric defended enclosures Gwent (year : 2006)
E003914 : RAF Caerwent DBA (year : 1994)
E003672 : Caerwent to Earlswood Pipeline Excavation and Evaluation (year : 1991)
E004007 : RAF Caerwent WB (year : 1994)
E004748 : Auger Survey at Llanmelin Hillfort (year : 2002)
Related PRNs : 301559, 04437g, 06171g
June 26, 2016, 5:09 pm
- HTML file produced from GGAT HER Charitable Trust Ltd. Heathfield House,
Heathfield, Swansea SA1 Tel. 01792 655208; Fax 01792 474469 website: www.ggat.org.uk
email: email@example.com Registered Charity no. 505609
supplied by in partnership with Local Authorities, Cadw and the partners
of ENDEX © GGAT HER Charitable Trust, 2016 (and in part © Crown,