The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust
Historic Environment Record
 

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ROMAN FORTRESS, USK (BURRIUM)

Primary Reference Number (PRN) : 01998g
Trust : Glamorgan Gwent
Community : Usk
NGR : SO37520069
Site Type (preferred type first) : Roman Fortress
Legal Protection : scheduled ancient monument

Summary :
PRN includes all pre-Trust excavations. Some pre-trust excavations have been marked on the map as PRNs 2310G; 2311G; 2327G.

Removal from schedule of area used for residential housing (under scheduled monument consent) west of Ty Brith Gardens and east

Description :
Usk (Burrium) has long been considered a pre-Flavian military site.

Excavations from the 1960s to the 1980s have firmly established Usk as the location of a legionary vexillation fortress (Manning 1981; 1989; Marvell 1990; 1996). The fortress is known to relate to the Neronian campaigns, and although the precise date of its foundation is not entirely certain, it is thought most likely to have been built around AD 54. The installation’s lifetime was relatively brief, however, for by AD 74 or shortly after it had been replaced by a new fortress 10 km downriver at Caerleon. Activity within the Usk fortress may already have been scaled down by this date, if, as Manning suggests, the garrison had been markedly reduced in AD 67.
Habitation at Usk may not have entirely ceased after AD 74, but there is nevertheless little evidence of significant occupation in the following decade. However, a revival of the site is attested by the presence of a small defended enclosure in the northwest portion of the demolished fortress, built during the late AD 80s.

The Neronian fortress was situated on roughly level ground at the 15m contour, on land between the Rivers Usk and Olway. The defences measured some 480m north-south and 400m east-west, and now lie largely underneath the southern part of the modern town.
Pearson 2002, 27

Removal from schedule of area used for residential housing (under scheduled monument consent) west of Ty Brith Gardens and east of Ty Brith House. The area has now been built on, following archaeological investigation.



Sources :
Marvell, A.G. and Maynard, D.J , 1998 , Excavations south of the legionary fortress at Usk, Gwent, 1994 , Britannia : 29 : 247-267
Sir R Colt Hoare , 1804 , Tour in Wales
Manning, W H , 1981 , Report on the excavations at Usk, 1965-1976: The Fortress excavations 1968-1971
Manning, W H , 1989 , Report on the excavations at Usk, 1965-1976: The Fortress Excavations 1972-1974 and Minor Excavations on the Fortress and Flavian Fort
02/PM Note/Manning WH/1973/Arch in Wales p41 no56
03/PM Note/Jackson RP & Manning WH/1975/Arch in Wales pp49-50 no62
01/PM Desc Text/Manning WH/1965/Arch in Wales no41 p13
04/Desc Text/Cadw/ Full Management Report/200/Copy in further information file

Events :
E000307 : ROMAN FORTRESS, USK, PARTIAL EXCAVATION, 1965-76 (year : 1965-76)
E003362 : Excavations south of Usk legionary fortress, 1994 (year : 1994)
E002352 : Usk Rising Main, Archaeological Excavations (year : 1995)

Related PRNs :


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